– Semantika, etimologija i politika –
Piše: Prof. Dr Kaplan BUROVIĆ, akademik
Nema naroda na svetu koji, pored svog pravog imena, ne nosi i neko drugo, neki nadimak, obično pežorativan, kojim ga nazivaju ostali, obično susedi, u najvećem slučaju neprijateljski raspoloženi. Setimo se samo Francuza, Engleza, Nemaca, Rusa, Italijana, Španaca. Svi oni imaju nadimke, jedan pogrdniji od drugog, kao što imaju nadimke i obični ljudi. Setimo se samo nadimaka Ivan, Jenki, Švaba, Lacmanin, Žabar, Gedža. Jedini narod na svetu, koji se može pohvaliti da nema peržorativno ime, jeste albanski narod. Ovo – naravno – ima svoj razlog, ali ja ne mislim pisati o tome.
Hoću da vam kažem pre svega istinitu istoriju jednog Albanca iz Tirane, i to iz naših dana. Zove se, ako već nije umro, Shaban Qose (Šaban Ćose), poznat ne samo u Tirani, već na sve strane Albanije. Postala je kod Albanaca i izreka: Ose-ose, Šaban Ćose!
Šaban je bio prodavač voća i povrća u jednoj maloj baraci, daleko od centra grada. Pošto je imao veliki nos, deca, pa i mladići, okupljali su se oko njega i ismejavali ga, izmotavali se sa njim na račun tog nosa. Ne manje ismejavale su ga i žene, koje su moguće podrazumevale i kojesta drugo. Bio je u godinama Šaban, pa im nije mogao ništa. Jednog dana toliko mu to dosadi, da se požali policiji, koja pozove decu i mladiće, pa i neke žene i naredi im da ostave nosonju na miru. Kad ču ono nosonju od usta policajca, Šaban razrogači oči, htede nešto reći, ali odmah pomisli: “A kome da se požalim protiv policajca?!”
Posle ovoga niko se više nije zaustavljao kod prodavnice Šabana. Izbegavale su ga i žene, ne samo mlade, već i one starije. Valda su pomislile da je u službi policije, čim su ga uzeli u odbranu. Svi su prolazili pored njegove prodavnice spuštene glave, ili okrećući lice na drugu stranu i praveći se kao da ga ne vide. Posle nekoliko dana dosadi to Šabanu, a i prometa više nije imao kao pre, pa se opet požali policiji: „Aman, što ste zabranili narodu da me zadeva za moj nos! Pa ja vam nisam rekao da mi ih udaljite sasvim! Meni je dosadno bez njih!“
Ovako je izgleda i Albancima postalo dosadno bez pežorativnog imena, pa ga stvoriše sami sebi. Oni su se kroz vekove hvatali za apelativ ARNAUT, kako ih to Turci nazivaju od pamtiveka, pa ih i dan-danas optužuju da ih tako nazivaju od prezrenja i sa prezrenjem. Kasnije uhvatiše se i za apelativ ŠIFTAR, kako ih Srbi nazivaju od početka XX veka, pa i protiv njih urliču na sva usta, optužuju ih i sataniziraju svakako, jer ih tobože i oni nazivaju tako, pežorativno, od prezrenja i sa prezrenjem. Štoviše, njihov poznati pesnik dr Esat Mekuli napisa i jednu pesmu sa naslovom ŠIFTAR MI NE KAŽI!, jer ga to nerviralo i ispunjavalo besom1), iako se busao u prsa za internacionalizam. Ali ga ni najmanje nije ni nerviralo, ni ispunilo besom, kada je pročitao u albanskoj štampi da Ismail Kadare (koji se tada isto tako busao u prsa za marksizam-lenjinizam i za internacionalizam!), ne samo što je Srbe nazivao SERBI, već je ovo SERBI izjednačio i sa SERVI i dao “etimološko” poreklo od latinskog servum = “sluga”. Tobože su tako Srbe nazivali Vizantinci, pošto su ovi – Srbi – po njemu, bili njihove sluge. On sasvim dobro zna da to nije istina, ali u borbi za sataniziranje Srba i za šovinistički i rasistički odgoj Albanaca, eto – upotrebio je i to.
Ovo ŠIFTAR, godine 1967, postade i objekt diskusija u Narodnoj skupštini Jugoslavije, gde je odlučeno da se na srpsko-hrvatskom jeziku ne upotrebi više reč ŠIPTAR, već ALBANAC.
Nema sumnje da je ime ŠIFTAR rođeno kasno, mnogo kasno, pošto i sami Albanci, do XVIII veka nisu sebe nazivali SHQIPETARIMA (= “sinovi orla”). U XIX veku, kada se ime Shqipetar (po uzoru na tursko OSMALIJE = “sinovi orla”) rasprostrlo ne samo u Albaniji, već i u njenoj dijaspori, zamenjujući pređašnje ARBËN/ARBËR, mnogi Albanci nisu ni sami znali kako da prononciraju tu reč, do tada za njih nepoznata. Neki su je prononcirali SHQYPETAR, drugi SHQIPETAR, treći SHYPTAR, četvrti SHIPTAR. Na Kosovu, gde su se ponajviše Albanci mešali sa Srbima (jedan njihov deo su albanizirani Srbi!), prononcirali su to ime SHIPTAR i SHIFTAR (= ŠIFTAR). Pa i dan-danas oni tako nazivaju sebe. I ovo ima svoje razloge, u koje momentalno nećemo da zalazimo u detalje, ali naglašavamo da Srbi nemaju samoglasnik Y (grčko ipsilon), pa svugde taj samoglasnik albanskih reči pretvaraju u I : Shqyptar > Šiptar, lypsar > lipsar, krypë > kripë i dr. A kad i Albanci to čine, onda bi trebalo da se ispita njihovo poreklo, jer mora da su srpskog, čim ne znaju da izgovaraju taj poseban albanski samoglasnik. Ono Šiptar, usled jednačenja po zvučnosti suglasnika, dalo je u jeziku Srba Šiftar.
Naglašavamo ovde samo da ime SHQIPETAR još se nije afirmiralo ni među samim Albancima, kamoli i u svetu, među nealbancima. Ceo svet ih dan-danas naziva kao i u Srednjem veku – ALBANCI. Pa i oni sami, u Grčkoj, Italiji i Hrvatskoj, dan-danas se ne nazivaju SHQIPETAR, već ARBËN/ARBËR, koje je proizašlo od ALBANOI, kako se zvalo keltsko pleme, koje su Albanci našli u Mat (Srednja Albanija, zona iznad Tirane), kad su tu stigli u IX veku n.e. Oni su asimilirali to pleme i uzeli za sebe njihovo ime, adaptirano u ARBËN. Tako su se Albanci nazivali sve do kraja XVII veka.
U XVIII veku Veliko-Turci počeše da se nazivaju OSMANLIJE, što na turskom jeziku znači “sinovi orla”. U to vreme većina Albanaca su prigrlili islam, pa od “musliman sam elhamdurilah!”, potražnjom Veliko-Turaka počeše da kažu “Turčin sam elhamdurilah!”. U vezi sa ovim nazvaše se i ovi “sinovi orla”, ali na albanskom jeziku. Znači SHQYPETAR (shqype – “orao”), koje se na njihovom jeziku vremenom transformiralo u SHQIPTAR.
Slušajući to novo ime od njih svakodnevno, Srbi Kosova počeše da ih nazivaju sve više ŠIFTAR i sve manje ARBANASI (=Albanci). Od Srba Kosova i od samih Albanaca to su ime prihvatili i ostali Sloveni Balkana, Crnogorci, Makedonci, naročito Srbi Beograda. Pogotovo kada su, posle balkanskih ratova, došli i u kontakt sa njima.
Tako ime ŠIFTAR, u početku, nije imalo ni najmanje pežorativan smisao. Kasnije, pogotovo u usta buržuja Srbije, Crne Gore i Makedonije, ono je počelo da pridobija i izvesnu pežorativnu notu. Što je više raslo neprijateljstvo između Albanaca i Srba, to je raslo i pežorativno opterećenje ovog imena. Ali samo kod buržuja. Običan Srbin, Crnogorac, Makedonac, nazvaće Albanca i dan-danas ŠIFTAROM, misleći da mu je tako ime, ni najmanje ne pomišljajući na ma što loše, pežorativno. Ako mu budete rekli da je to uvredljivo, prezrivo, pežorativno ime, da se tako izražava mržnja i netrpeljivost prema Albancima, oni će se najiskrenije iznenaditi i povući. Povukoše se i oni u Narodnoj Skupštini u Beogradu.
Ista stvar se danas zbiva i u Švajcarskoj sa imenom ALBANAIS = Albanac. Neki Švajcarci, zna se ko, uz nacionalno ime Albanaca, dodaju sa neprikrivenim prezirom: “A-la-la, Albanais!” Iz dana u dan ime ALBANAIS kod buržuja Švajcarske prima sve više pežorativan smisao.
Naravno da buržuji Srbije i Švajcarske vuču za sobom i neupućenu masu građana. Konstruktivni građani su se odupirali ovome i odupiru se, pa i javnim protestiranjem.
Polazeći od činjenice da i sami Albanci dan-danas nazivaju sebe ŠIFTAR, a kad govore na nekom stranom jeziku kažu za sebe da su ALBANCI, mislim da kao u imenu ALBANAC, tako i u imenu ŠIFTAR, nema ništa lošeg. Oni imaju i izreku: “Ne hramlje magarac ušima!” Ali, budući da albanski buržuji uzimaju ono ŠIFTAR u pežorativnom smislu, za prezrenje i nacionalnu netrpeljivost, preporučujem gospodi Srbima, Crnogorcima i Makedoncima da ih više ne oslovljavaju tako, da više ne upotrebe to ime. Nazovimo ih njihovim svetski afirmiranim imenom ALBANCI, bar dok nam ne budu rekli da ih i pod tim imenom mrzimo, preziremo, ponižavamo, teroriziramo i osporavamo im osnovna ljudska prava.
1) MEKULI Esat: PËR TY, Priština 1953. Pesma Shiftar mos më thuej (= Šiftar mi ne kaži).
ALBANIANS ARE NOT AUTOCHTHONOUS
– Documents and evidence, facts and arguments –
PROF. DR KAPLAN BUROVIĆ
– academic –
No book or booklet is available in Albanian, particularly among those published after WW II and under ideological control of the Albanian Labour Party (pretending to endorse the scientific truth, Marxism-Leninism and internationalism), where its authors, Albanians, do not insist on being an indigenous people.
Let me try to explain first what these Albanians mean by the term autochthony. I shall draw the reader’s attention to the Dictionary of the Albanian Academy of Sciences, as it is the most authoritative work among all other writings contributing to their ideological concepts.
One can see that what their academia mean literally by the term autochthony:
“Belonging of an original people to a place…being rooted in a place…belonging to a place, not being a newcomer; being born where one can now be found living…autoktonia e shqiptareve (my translation: autochthony of Albanians,– KB).1)
It is evident that these Albanians cannot help aspiring to indigenousness even here. This fact is exactly the first example of the phenomenon. The readership will discover later on that AUTOCHTHONY and ALBANIANS for them stand as synonymous terms, as one and the same idea. They cannot imagine the word AUTOCHTHONY without its twin ALBANIAN, and the other way round. These words mean absolutely the same. They not anly stand as two words for one idea, they support their very essence and existence.
I must stress that these Albanians subsume under AUTOCHTHONY of a people that this people belongs to an aboriginal population of a place. Ab origine! This means that no other people could have lived in that place prior to them, absolutely noone else. Put concretely, there, in Albania (and not anly in Albania, but all over the Balkans), Albanians were those who were born there, from the very beginning, from their fore-fore-fathers, from times immemorial, since human life began in those parts. Allegedly, they have not come from anywhere else and at no time whatsoever.
In order to clarify a bit on the above, let me point out that these Albanians hold that all other Balkan peoples, including the ancient Greeks and Latins of the Appenine Peninsula, are not autochthonous. They think that absolutely no other people is autochthonous. All other peoples of the Balkans (and Europe, too) are comers and despisable comers and intruders to that, particularly Slavs, while only Albanians are an aboriginal people of the Balkans and Europe.
Concretely, they are well aware that the Slavs entered Durrachium (today Durres, the principal city on today’s Albanian coast) in 548 A.D., settled down there and in the subsequent years, decades and centuries were born, to become, in a sense, aboriginal and to be deemed as belonging to that place. They cannot be, on these grounds, deemed as newcomers, having been born where they are to be found even today. These Slavs and their parents, grandparents and great-grandparents, but not their great-great-grandparents, since they came ther in 548 A.D.! Due only to the fact that it is known that the Slavs came in 548, these Albanians state that Slavs are not autochthonous, but newcomers and intruders.
Since Albanians do not remember the time when they came there and as no documents on their arrival are available, they maintain that they are autochthonous. These facts – lack of memory and of any documents – are considered by them sufficient in supporting their claims for aboriginality.
Let me be clear at this point: regardless of when one’s predecessors had come to a place, one is not autochthonous. In order to be autochthonous one ought to have been created in a place since the genesis of human life, since the very beginning. One ought to have popped up like grass and trees and ought to be able to trace the roots of one’s forefathers’ existence right there, in that very place and no other.
Since neither Slavs nor Greeks can satisfy this criterion, they are not autochthonous in the Balkans. These Albanians are entitled to all rights here. By stating that they have been born where they are found now, that they are aboriginal and rooted like grass and trees, that they have their beginning here and are not comers (from no place and in no time), they deem themselves an autochthonous people and reserve autochthony for themselves solely. They deny this privilege to all other peoples of the Balkans.
Let me show now the way they express themselves.
Foreign scholarswere the first to deal with albanological problems. When they put on paper their first thoughts on Albanians, the very Albanians were illiterate or, as aptly put by the Albanian Acad. Dimitar S.Shuterici, those who could read and write could be counted y fingers of one hand. The first impression of Albanians by foreign scholars were deficient for lack of documents and research. To top it all, they suffered from romanticism of their age. It was, out of all these reasons, supposed that Albanians were rudimentary remnants of ancient peoples who lived in those parts. Among them the first was a Dalmatian, historian Tuberone Cerva (1455-1527). According to him, Albanians are a “relict of old Macedonians…neither Greek nor Latin history books make any mention of their arrival from Asia”.
This was accepted by an Albanian feudo-bourgeois researcher Pjetar Mazrek (d. 1635), who professed autovhthony of Albanians. In reference to this, the contemporary Albanian researcher professor dr Jup Kastrioti says:
“Autochthony thesis of our author is important. It has double value because it emerges for the first time among the Albanian scholars and because it constitutes the very beginning of scholarly thinking on the origin of Albanians language. It outstrips some erroneous concepts of European historians who see Albanians as new inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula.”.2)
That the ancient Greek and Roman historians do not mention the Albanians anywhere (solely for the reason that they were not there at the time), neither T. Cerva nor P. Mazarek or Kastrati care to know. How could these ancient historians say that Albanians had not arrived from Asia is familiar to those only who are engaged in fabricating history and documents. Normal logic of normal people will find this to be beyond grasp. I bid them to quote, however, the source whence they picked such data. All scholars of the world are saying and writing that the first mention of Albanians in history occurred in the XI c. A.D. There is no hint of them in the documents of antiquity!
Albanian high intellectual Adem Istrefi, who grew up in Albania and was educated at the Encer Hoxha University in Tyranna, who walked through the courtrooms of Albania as a false witness of the charges placed by SIGURIMI (Secret Police of the regime, trsnl. note) against dissidents and perfectly innocent people, states that Albanians have been in the Balkans “since the world was created”3). Moreover, according to this Marxist-Leninist (!), the very devil, after quarelling with God and after descending to earth, found the Albanians there. When a Balkan warrior, who had been killed, was found lying naked, devil was asked about his nationality, the retort was presumably as follows:
“Shqipetar they say is his name; I do not know if the Sun or Moon are older, but ever since I came to these parts, I found him living here…”4)
In another poem by the name of Antipsallme, he says:
“And I was that ancient Pelasgian, older than the Moon…”5)
Under “Pelasgian” he (and other Albanians like him) means himself, the Albanian.
In the same vein, in his short story entitled “Te hani i Kacanikut”, following in the steps of an ideologue of the Albanian Renaissance, Sami Frasheri, he puts these words in the mouth of a fictitious German:
“(Albanians) are among the oldest peoples of Europe. Even we Germans, proud as we are of our culture and today’s development, used to live in herds and in caves when these (Albanians) were able to manufacture iron and had a civilization worthy of the envy of the whole world…”.6)
It is easy to see that this Albanian throughout all of his opus does not miss an opportunity to show that Albanians are autochthonous. All others, as soon as they learn to read and write, are just like him. As another example, let me quote another high-brow, Skender Buçpapaj, a former director of the newspaper DRITA, then of the RTV of Albania and, to top it all, the ambassador of Albania in Switzerland:
“One such idea, devious as much as primitive, which negates the autochthony of our people and, as a consequence, our presence here, deserves a response full of irony, sarcasm and of the grotesque and it ought to activate legends, superstitions and the Illyrian myths…”.7)
His colleague Acad. prof. dr Mojkom Zeqo adds to this: “To doubt the autochthony of Albanians is equivalent to being ridiculous”.8)
Let me introduce the fourth Pelasgian from the Enver Hohxa University, Sulejman Krasniqi, recognized as the “great” man of letters, who published a “novel” by the name of DARDANIANS in 1985, Tyranna. His main tenet there is that they – Albanians – are ancient Dardanians!!! – and, unquestionably, autochthonous! Even the fifth Pelasgian, lumpen-intellectual Ismail Kadare, renowned as the author on the court of the sultan Enver Hoxha, a correspondent member of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, says literally this:
“Albanians as autochthonous Balkanians take offence particularly when their history is touched upon and their indigenousness is negated”.9)
In his work FTESE NE STUDIO Kadare undertakes to depict Albanians as living in the Balkans not only before devil but even before the emergence of the Moon and the Sun. Toachieve this, he makes reference to a cosmogonic poem of a Serb, Petar Bogdan, “Stvaranje sveta” (Creation of the World), which, along the lines of thinking of the notorious and already discredited Albanian chauvinists and racists from Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, Rexhep Qosa and Sabri Hamidi, he tries to interpret the way he pleases, the way the poem of Vislava Shimborska “Truth Obliges”10) was interpreted. Being aware of the absurdity of his assertions and the exposition of Bogdan’s poem, Kadare remains stuck halfway with no conclusions. He blabbers it out but in the end he does not dare say what he would love to say.11)
The mentioned persons are neither the first not the last to think and write that way. Without exceptions, all these Albanians are the same. I wish that the last Mohican among them be the Acad. prof. dr Skender Rizaj.12)
All these Albanians who rant about autochthony are nothing more than loudspeakers of those in power in Tyranna. They get instructions and orders for everything they do from them. They get their roles for which they are paid. Naturally enough, all others howl of the autochthony, those harmless and naïve ones, who are not paid for it, who frankly believe they are indigenous, for they had been intoxicated so by the authorities’ loudspeakers in Tyranna. Autochthony thus has become the obsession of both the Albanian intellectual and the man-in-the-street, of the road-sweeper in Tyranna and the goat-keeper in the hills and mountains of Albania. It is of particular interest to the intellectual: it pervades all his thoughts, every single concept, idea, yearning or ambition.
Albanian intellectuals recognize their autochthony everywhere and in everything, in every place and in every phenomenon or concept. They see their men of letters as autochthonous as well as their romanticism13) and their language. Almost all Albanian academics write about the “autochthonous and independent character of the Albanian language, compared to other Balkan languages which”, according to them, are neither autochthonous nor independent14). Even their suffixes turn out to be autochthonous.15)
The very Albanian thought is autochthonous according to them and so is their longevity and surviving power – absolutely everything that is Albanian16). In his doctorate dissertation VEPRA E BOGDANIT, Prishtina, 1982, Ibrahim Rugova writes among other things: “ZANA (fairy,- KB) as concept of beliefs and autochthonous mythology”17). It is well-known that ZANA is not a concept of beliefs and mythology of Albanians, and it is far from being autochthonous. The very word Zana is not Albanian, coming as it is from neo-Latin languages and originating from Lat. DIANA.
In one of their tales even the Moon turns out to be indigenously Albanian. There is no doubt that we shall soon be told that the earth is autochthonously Albanian and after that nothing else remains than to pack up and leave for the Mars, unless it is shown to be autochthonously Albanian, too.
It is certain that nothing here is done by chance and without a goal. Through autochthonolatry and autochthonomania they are pressing hard in order to convince, above all, themselves, the Albanian masses and then all others, non-Albanians, that they truly are aboriginal and, consequently, the owners of all regions where Albanians live or do not live, not only in the Balkans but in the whole of Europe. Or, in the words of an Albanian “autochthonous” author, wherever the hoof of the Albanian feudal lord’s horse used to tread.
To promulgate such ideas, Albanians have published countless “studies”, such as those by the “scholar” Seit Mansaku18), they also had a book printed by the name AUTOKTONIA E SHQIPTAREVE (Autochthony of Albanians)19), which I elaborate in detail in another study20). This book, as Kadare himself found it necessary to admit, has an aim to furnish the Albanians with the “strength and legal pride “.21)
With all powers available to them, Albanians tend to create a myth of autochthony. They reiterate it on a daily basis and in reference to everything else, such as books, studies, papers, poems, where it is or is not befitting, whenever it is possible or where it is impossible. Rexhep Qose himself admits: “Due to countless repetitions, in the course of time thess (aspirations to autochthony,- KB) will pass into myths!“22)
Fan Noli says: “Myths are seven-headed dragons. Chop one off, two new ones will pop out.”23). French critic Ronald Bard refers somewhere to myths in this vein: “They do not rely on truth but on potentials of their application”24). Long ago Victor Hugo stated: “There is nothing as powerful as dogma which gives birth to a dream. There is nothing as powerful as a dream which gives birth to future. Utopia today – flesh and bones tomorrow, a reality”.25)
After all this nonsense of the Albanian intellectuals and “scholars”, professors, doctors and academics, French prof. Gut from theSorbonne University maintains that the “representatives of the most highly advanced scholarly thought in Albanology today are found in Tyranna”26). Or, perhaps, that was not what you said, Mr Gut? Do not you know what these Tyrannians (or Tyrants!) have made of their Albanology? Perhaps you are not familiar with the case of the Italian balkanologist Giulliano Bonfante?!
Pretending to autochthony, Albanian nationalists are currently professing a Pelasgian-Illyrian-Albanian ethnogenesis. If scholars unveiled tomorrow that before Pelasgians an X-people had lived in the Balkans, you can be sure that these Albanians would immediately state that they too are their forefathers. They would cling to the X-people- Pelasgian-Illyrian-Albanian ethnogenesis right away. They want to be autochthonous at any price. They want to be the oldest people in the Balkans, in Europe and possibly in the whole world. Uber alles! By paraphrasing Vladimir Illich Lenin, I can say that if geometrical axioms confirmed that Kosovo was Serbian and that it can never, to the end of time, be Albanian, not only ordinary Albanian nationalists, but ‘Marxists-Leninists’ of Enver Hoxha, especially their scholars and academics would certainly tend to break those axioms. There is, moreover, a possibility that geometry itself would be regarded as chauvinist, Great-Serbian anti-science. A poet among those Albanians has already put it this way: “If I knew that Kosovo would not be a part of Albania, I should wish the whole world to go to dust and ashes!”
These Albanians have turned to dust and ashes every single thing that was not in their favour, in order to prove their autochthony, their right to appropriate Kosovo or the Balkans and consider themselves as being uber alles, so that everyone would pay respect to them and kow-tow to them, the way they bowed to the sultan, his vizirs and pashas, whose feet they caressed, bragging afterwards of being the bravest people on Earth.
When a boaster from another nation extols the beauties of a place (without mentioning the old age and supremacy of his people over the others!), these Albanians do not hesitate to howl at him for “openly spreading the racist theories”27). They spot this across the borders, mountains, seas and oceans, from thousands of kilometers away. At the same time, in front of their noses, they fail to notice or recognize Adem Istrefi’s racist bragging of the imaginary antiquity of Albanians and their economic and cultural superiority over Germans. All this in spite of the fact known to them that their countrymen still eat with wooden spoons for they cannot make or buy the metal ones yet. What are all these empty assertions, silly boasting and senseless bragging of autochthony and uber-alles ideology but a highly distilled Great-Albanian chauvinism and a dirty racism of a vagabond?
It is certain that such statements neither make science nor stand for truth. They only mystify and forge truth and launch all sorts of legends, ‘old’ and new sagas, myths that indoctrinate innocent, common people and those who are unable to tell between lie and truth, political propaganda, racism and fascism from science. The climax of it all is that it is exactly these Albanians who are vainglorious and who are permanently obsessed by making up legends, myths and stories, charge others – primarily Serbs – of being those who create such sagas, stories and myths about Kosovo and other other themes.
As an example, let me mention the Albanian historians Luan Maltezi28) and dr Ali Jakupi29), who condemn Serbs for making up such myths. Is there a chance that these Albanians (along with Noel Malcolm) provide us with at least one myth, one Serbian story for their (Serbian) autochthony, one saga of their X-Illyrian-Serbian ethnogenesis, one myth on which they base their pretensions to Kosovo and Metohia? Perhaps these Albanians take for myths the Patriarchy of Pec, Visoki Decani, Gracanica and 3500 churches scattered across Kosovo and Metohia? Perhaps they count among stories the Nemanjic dynasty, tsar Dusan Silni (The Mighty) and the battle of Kosovo? Do the uprisings against Turks by Kosovar Serbs for the national liberation and migrations of Serbs led by their patriarchs belong to myths? Can the brilliant cycle of epic poems, sung by the Serbian people in honour of its thanes and Kosovo, be considered as mythological?
The epic legacy was created at a time when the Albanian people pacted with the aggressor and took part in tearing down Serbian churches and monasteries, while putting up Turkish Moslem mosques? Was their Sinan Pasha a myth and was the pyre on the Vraçar mount another myth, too? Perhaps Saint Sava belongs to mythological characters while history recorded that these Albanians had burned his body on the Vraçar mount…? Are Orthodoxy and Christianlty myths?
No, Albanian and Moslem fundamentalism are not myths, Mr Malcolm! In recent decades it was augmented by extreme nationalism, chauvinism and racism. Those are the results of their intellectual constraints which through centuries caused the Albanian economic and culturalbackwardness and lagging behind both the neighbouring and the most distant peoples of the world. Aware of being trodden down by history, Albanian intellectuals have been doing their best to make up for this by inventing myths, legends and by engaging the fancy to restructure by pen and ink what other peoples have written by sabre and their blood. Albanians falsify their history (where Mr Malcolm lends his hand!), then endeavour to pass that forfeiture for truth and impose it upon the world as reality.
Faced with this Moslem fundamentalsim since the time of their encounter not only Serbs have been fighting the battle of life and death, but all peoples of the Balkans, Europe and even the whole world! For centuries Albanian has served as the swaying sabre of the Turkish sultans and Moslem fundamentalism employed in creating their world Moslem empire. A contemporary Albanian historian says with pride:
“Albania has given 35 vizirs, hundreds of pashas and generals, thousands of begs, agas, serdars, dizdars, subashas, dukes, kadias, zabits and memurs”.30)
When that Turkish-Albanian empire came to a crash, they took to communism with a hope that it might enable them to make their dreams of national expansion and the embodiment of their Super-Great-Albania come true. As another crash occurred, they became mercenaries again, the swaying sabre of the devil and his son, all with a hope that the dark forces of the world will help them in building their Super-Great-Albania and even the Illyrian Empire or, in the words of Ismail Kadare, the Albanian Commonwealth. What other peoples have achieved by sabre and blood, Albanians are making by fantasy and the dark forces.
Dark powers of this world have misused and continue to misuse the Albanian sparkled fantasy. They have mobilized them into the SS divisions and hurled them a;; the way from the front of Stalingrrad to the front of Paris. They kicked them onto the Balkan front which presedes WW III. Albanian fantasist, following in the steps of his parents and forefathers, gladly flies int the fire and water without realizing why he lives or why he dies. What Albanians do not like with other peoples theyy readily declare to be the legends, myths and stories. What they like in their people, however, no matter how absurd that may be, they declare with like readiness to be reality and sheer truth.
As we have seen, Albanians state that they are autochthonous. On the other hand, they admit that in the parts where they live today Pelasgians had lived before them. This fact they have up to now not even thought of denying, but have insisted that these regions from times immemorial were inhabited by Pelasgians. As you can see, Albanian historians have finally admitted in public and collectively that they have nothing in common with the Pelasgians. Look up into their HISTORY, written by their own hands!31) Not only collectively but individually, too, they have admitted that they have no relations with Pelasgians. For an example, please check at prof. dr Jup Kastrati.32)
This means nothing less than to admit that Pelasgians lived before Albanians in these parts and, at the same time, recognize that Albanians have nothing in common with them. Does not this mean to admit that Albanians are not autochthomous, that they are newcomers living in the lands of another people?!
Or, perhaps, Albanians had lived here even before Pelasgians? Possibly it was Pelasgians who inhabited the territories of Albanians, and not the other way round? I think it does not take much thinking to percieve the contradictions of these Albanians. If Pelasgians had lived in those lands before Albanians, then Albanians cannot be autochthonous. That it is so was recorded not only by authors of antiquity; it was admitted by Albanian scholars themselves. Contradictory statements cannot prove autochthony of Albanians.On the contrary, they prove something altogether different, that pretensions of Albanians do not have a scientific character but a solely political one. On the other hand, although they have stated and continue to state that they are aboriginal, not one among these Albanians has endeavoured to prove that by anything under the Sun. Why? Because they are aware, completely aware, that they are not autochthonous and that they cannot prove the autochthony by anything. This is why they have invited by words of mouth and in writing their people to clasp at the autochthony and to repeat it all over and in reference to everything else, with a conviction that due to frequent repetitions they would be able to fashion it into a myth.
Albabians are quite susceptible to mythomania. Mythomania feeds their megalomania, which lends itself to racism. Racism makes them very problematic not only within Albania (where not only ethnic minorities live with them, but an entire and distinct ethnicity, Vlachs), but for the neighbouring peoples, too, whom they distrurb and destabilize. The ‘wisest’among them, Acad. Mark Krasniqi, says:
“Today’s Albanians all around the Balkans live on the territory of their forefathers and this fact of itself clearly testifies to their autochthony”.33)
Erbs live on the territories of their forefathers and yet do not take as evidence of their autochthony. Moreover, they do not even intend to profess something of the sort, although they have been chareged by the Albanians of being the authors of legends, myths and sagas. This applies to any other people as well! I am not aware of any other people on Earth so passionately involved in professing its autochthony like these Albanians.
Albanians are indoctrinated in this way from their very birth, from the moment they open their eyes. Autochthony has become an obsession for all of them, especially for those inclined to nationalism. It has become a fetish, an idee fixee or as they would put it in Turkish, TOLOSSUM. They are not only unable to imagine themselves otherwise, without autochthony, but it seems that they cannot even breathe without that fixation. If you say to an Albanian that his people is not autochthonous, his world will immediately turn upside-down, his mind will go dim, his eyes will be shot with blood and he will go mad. In that madness he will raise his arms against you, he will try to kill you! Although they have tried many times to kill me, I have on many occasions, in speaking and writing, endeavoured to demonstrate to these Albanians that they are not autochthonous.
I did it before being arrested in Albania, when they raised charges against me for being a political and ideological diversion for their country34). I did it when they put me in shackles and concrete of the most monstrous prison in the world in Burel. I did it as soon as I saved my head from that prison and I am doing it now. Please browse through my study Periodizmi e gjuhes shqipe (Periodization of the Albanian Language) published in Geneva in 1994, then Forged Albanian History35). I have listed a pile of documents, testimonies, facts and arguments against the autochthony of Albanians. Let me lay them down here:
1. HOMOS GEORGICOS (Agragian Law), codofied somewhere in the middle of the VIII c. A.D., contains common law of Byzantium and the Slavs. All peoples of the Balkans including Prevalitania (today’s Albania) are mentioned there except the Albanians. What else could this mean but the fact that Albanians were not there at the time?! This is an undeniable document which negates autochthony of Albanians on the territory they occupy today.
2. ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. It is known that Albanian is an Indo-European (IE) language, which means that Albanians share the same origin tith other IE peoples, concretely with Greeks, Serbs, Montenegrins or Macedonians. This also means that they are comers to Europe and the Balkans from Asia (India), the cradle of humanity and the Sanskrit language, mother of all IE languages. Were the Albanians autochthonous, their language would not be an IE language. This is another unbeatable evidence of their not being autochthonous, as much as the white, yellow or black skin of the Americans testifies that they are not autochthonous in America, although many of them may have forgotten where forefathers had come from.
3. LATIN LOANWORDS. Albanian language, like other languages, has loanwords from Latin. World scholars who delved deep into Albanian have proved that these loanwords had not come into Albanian directly but through a third, intermediary, language. This was accepted even by the greatest Albanian philologist of all times, respected Acad. dr Eqrem Cabej. If Albanians were autochthonous, loanwords from Latin would not come into Albanian by means of another language and as autochthonous populace they would be in direct contact with the Latin populace. Presence of a mediator-language in accepting Latin words proves that Albanian did not have a physical contact with the Romans, which, on the other hand, proves that they are not autochthonous.
4. ALBANIAN TOPONYMS. None of the known ancient toponyms throughout the regions where Albanians now live can be shown to derive from Albanian language. They all have foreign, non-Albanian etymologies, which has been proved by the world’s scholars. To name just a few: prof. dr Gustav Weigand, Romanian Acad. prof. dr S. Pushkariu, Italian Acad. prof. dr Giulliano Bonfante and others. Even the renowned Bulgarian albanologist Acad. prof. dr Vladimir Georgiev did not only voice his consent to this thesis but contributed his argument for it. He states that the ancient Illyrian toponyms of modern Albania such as Shkoder from Scodra and Tomor from Tomarus, were not inherited directly. Basing his research on the data of the historical phonetics of the Albanian language, he maintains that these toponyms have not been used in Albanian continuously since pre-Roman times.36)
If Albanians were autochthonous, at least some of the known ancient toponyms of Prevalitania would bear an Albanian etymology. Even the capital of Albania, Tyranna, is based on Greek.
5. ROMANIZATION. All languages of the Balkans except Greek, including those of the most numerous peoples such as Illyrians and Thracians, under powerful influence of Latin, have been romanized. Albanian language has not and this testifies to the fact that at the time of romanization of the Balkans Albanians were not present there, which means that they are not autochthonous.
6. CHRISTIANITY. If Albanians were autochthonous, they would be among the first peoples of the Balkans to accept Christianlty. The Roman consuls (St Paul among them) carried out christianization of the pagans exactly on the territory of today’s Albania. There are countless proofs that Albanians were among the last Balkan peoples who accepted Christianity, after Serbs. It was Serbs, really, who christianized the Albanians. As late as 1924 Albanians did not even have their church. Then again it was a Serb-Macedonian (Djordje Nikolic) with a Greek (Theophan Mauromatis, known among Albanians under the pseudonym of Fan Noli), who established the Albanian independent church. Due to the fact that they accepted Christianity quite recently and superficially, Albanians will desert Christianity en masse and accept the faith of the Balkan aggressors, Turks. This all confirms the fact that they are not autochthonous.
7. ALPHABET. If Albanians were autochthonous and in contact with the two culturally most advanced peoples of the then world, Greeks and Romans, they would at least embrace their alphabets or make their own based on theirs. Not only did not they make their own alphabet, but they did not accept either of them. They will make their own alphabet only in 1908. Let me underline this here: Slavs (Serb-Montenegrins, Macedonians and others), who are not autochthonous and who did not have personal contacts with Latins(the least so with the two most prominent cultural metropolises of the Romans on today’s Albanian territory, Durrachium and Apollonia), following the Greek example in Middle Ages, came up with not one but two alphabets: cyrillic and glagolothic. Does this point to the fact that Albanians are an autochthonous people present here from times beyond recollection or that they are not autochthonous but newcomers, like all other peoples in the Balkans or all other places in Europe? Moreover, they have come relatively recently, almost after all others, and at least after Serbs.
Argumenta ponderantum, non numerantum! If these seven arguments do not suffice, it is possible to list another seven or seventy new ones. The mentioned Bulgarian Albanologist V. Georgiev, apart from the argument I quoted from him, lists more arguments which can be looked up in his quoted work.
That Albanians are not autochthonous is an evident thing. This has long been accepted by all the world’s scholars, even those known as the greatest friends of the Albanian people. To name, it was accepted by prof. dr Gustav Meier, prof. dr Norbert Jokl and others, especially those of modern times.
It is for this reason that some conscientious Albanians, who care about their professional and human honour and dignity, have started to recede in various ways from the positions of autochthony. Among the first was the president of the Academy of Sciences prof. dr Aleks Buda and immediately following, acad. prof. dr Eqrem Çabej, then Shaban Demiraj and others. Aleks Buda now ays that under autochthony of Albanians he subsumesd a relative autochthony.37)
Others are continuing to beat the drums of autochthony even to this day. Albanian intellectual, prof. dr Jup Kastrati, told this to the president of the Academy of Sciences: “Autochthony of Albanians is an absolute, not a relative, truth”38).
Acad. prof. dr Zef Mirdita39) shares the opinion of Kastrati and so does prof. dr Reshat Nexhipi, both of whom I have already written40). They all seem to ignore what their greatest scholars have told them. They can see perfectly clearly, yet they pretend not to see anything. What Albanians do not like they do not want to see.
Since the time they read my studies in albanology and saw that not only I am right but that my theses are being accepted by the world’s universities, some Albanian intellectuals, historians and scholars have of late began to recede from their views. Those who are worth mentioning are dr Ardian Klosi, Fatos Lubonja and Ardian Vehbiu.
The number of new Albanian scholars. There is a growing number of Albanian scholars who are accfepting my albanological theses and my diversion in Albanian science and culture, who are with an increasing audacity taking a stand against autochthony. They are also negating the Albanian origins from Illyrians more openly. One of them has addressed the Albanians on the internet by advising them thus: “Learn your history from Acad. Kaplan Burovic!”.
And truly, they are learning it, willy-nilly, they are learning it!
This work of mine has been a highly demanding and exhausting one because Albanians put me in prison for it and passed a life sentence, while Ismail Kadare asked Evver Hoxha to have me castrated. Albanian Acad. and ambassador in Turkey prof. dr Skender Shkupi stated in the newspapers that I deserve not only to be arrested but also to be tortured and massacred41). Ohers suggested that I deserve not only to be arrested but shot down as well. Even today they are inviting the Albanian braves to murder me, only and solely for the reason that I cannot accept their forged history and their histery of autochthony and Illyrian origins. Since I managed to get out of their prison, they started a shotfire of lies and libels. They have satanazid me everywhere and in all languages and attempted a few assassinations. They have blacklisted me violently and mistreated in the dirtiest manners possible both my family and myself, which regrettably is going on even now. They enjoyed support of the Serbian, Montenegrin, Macedonian and even Swiss authorities. Only my family and I know all the tribulations of surviving the heinous campaign of these beasts who ignore all laws, conventions and principles of contemporary society and civilization.
This work of mine has been exacting also for the reason that I have been like a “straw in the gale”, as the greatest Serbian poet Njegos would say. Notwithstanding, I still feel strong, especially when I see my victory approaching as the Albanians are coming to and distancing themselves from myths and histery of autochthony and illyromania and at long last accepting the scholarly truth to which I have dedicated my life and sacrificed my family, children, everything else. I find my pride and dignity to be perfectly legitmate after so much sacrificing, so my readiness to accept new challenges and sacrifices and go on walking along this thorny road of unraveling the scientific truth to those who do not want it is only logical.
The Prison of Burel,
Albania, Sep-Oct, 1972. *
1) AKADEMIA E SHKENCAVE E RPS TË SHQIPËRISË – Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë: FJALOR i gjuhës së sotme shqipe, Tyranna, 1980, p. 73, col. II.
2) KASTRATI, prof. dr Jup: HISTORIA E ALBANOLOGJISË,- Tyranna, 2000, p.76.
3) ISTREFI, Adem: LËSHOMA HISEN E DIELLIT,- Tyranna, 1984, p. 8.
4) ISTREFI, Adem: Legjendë e moçme,- newspaper DRITA, Tyranna, Oct 17, 1982, p. 10.
5) ISTREFI, Adem: Anti-psallmë,- newspaper DRITA, Tyranna, Jul 22, 1984, p. 8.
6) ISTREFI, Adem: Te hani i Kaçanikut, magazine NËNTORI No. 3, Tyranna, 1982, p. 248.
7) BUÇPAPAJ, Skënder: Burrërorja në emocionet njerëzore,- newspaper DRITA, Tyranna, Sep 16, 1990, p. 11, col. I.
8) ZEQO, Mojkom: Një paskvilë të flliqur e ka shkruar Kapllan Resuli (= A dirty libel was written by Kaplan Resuli…),- article published in Albanian press in Tyranna and widely spread over the internet sites of Albanians. I found it on AGIMI (www.agim.com), ALBASOUL, then ILIRET, TETOVA INFO CENTR etc. A short comment on not so “ridiculous a person”, M. Zeqo, was given by Anton BUROVIC in his work INTERNET ZA AKADEMIKA BUROVIĆA (Internet for Acad. Burovic), Ulcinj 2006, pp. 20-21.
9) KADARE, Ismail: Që të pushojnë erërat shoviniste,- in the newspaper LE MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE, Paris, Feb 06, 1989, republished in the paper DRITA, Tyranna, Feb 26, 1989, p. 16.
10) For more details see my study Istina iznad svega (Truth Above All) published in the Serbian e-paper ISTINA Year. I, No. 40, Vienna, Nov 27, 2005.
11) KADARE, Ismail: FTESË NË STUDIO, paper DRITA, Tyranna Sep 30, 1990, p. 9, coll. II-III
12) RIZAJ, Skender: Shqiptarët janë autoktonë në Kosovë,- paper ZËRI I POPULLIT, Tyranna, Mar 07. 1990, p. 4.
13) QOSE, Rexhep: PANTEONI I RRALLUAR, Tyranna, 1988, pp. 130 and 366.
14) KOSTALLARI, Androkli – SHKURTAJ, Gjovalin: Një ngulim arbresh në dritën e së kaluarës dhe të sotmes,- magazine STUDIME FILOLOGJIKE No. 2, Tyranna, 1989, p. 85, note 5.
15) XHUVANI, Aleksandar: VEPRA, Vol I, Tyranna, 1980, see at the suffix –AN.
16) RUGOVA, Ibrahim: Imuniteti autokton,- paper DRITA, Tyranna, Mar 26. 1989, pp. 10, coll. II and 11, col. I.
17) My quotation is acc. to STUDIME FILOLOGJIKE No. 2, Tyranna, 1989, p. 109.
18) MANSAKU, Seit: Autoktonia e shqiptarëve në dritën e të dhënave të toponimisë së lashtë, in the magazine STUDIME FILOLOGJIKE, No. 3, Tyranna, 1982.
19) ÇABEJ, Nelson: AUTOKTONIA E SHQIPTARËVE, Tyranna, 1990.
20) BUROVIĆ, Kaplan: KADARE I ALBANOLOGIJA,- manuscript, the prison of Burel, 1990.
21) KADARE, Ismail: Autoktonia e shqiptarëve,– paper BASHKIMI, Tyranna, Sep 14. 1990, p. 3.
22) QOSE, Rexhep: ibid., p. 18.
23) NOLI, Fan: VEPRA, Vol 5, Tyranna, 1988, p. 39.